# Publications

## All Papers

### 2018

T. Chang, J. A. Fan, T. H. Lee, "Evaluating the Microwave Performance of Epidermal Electronics with Equivalent Transmission Line Modeling," Proc. of IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Biomed. Conf., Jun. 2018 (Best Student Paper First Place Award).

N. Saiz, J. G. Buckmaster, T. H. Lee, "A Ka-Band Beamformer for Wireless Power Transfer to Body Area Networks," Proc. of IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Biomed. Conf., Jun. 2018.

### 2017

T. Chang, Y. Tanabe, C. C. Wojcik, A. C. Barksdale, S. Doshay, Z. Dong, H. Liu, M. Zhang, Y. Chen, Y. Su, T. H. Lee, J. S. Ho, J. A. Fan, "A General Strategy for Stretchable Microwave Antenna Systems using Serpentine Mesh Layouts," Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 27, no. 46, p. 1703059, Oct. 2017.

T. Chang, C. Wojcik, Y. Su, J. A. Rogers, T. H. Lee, J. A. Fan, "Characterization of Stretchable Serpentine Microwave Devices for Wearable Electronics," Proc. of IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp., Jun. 2017.

### 2015

N. Dolatsha, N. Saiz, and A. Arbabian, "Fully packaged millimetre-wave dielectric waveguide with multimodal excitation," *Electronics Letters* - August 2009.

Bhardwaj, K. and Lee, T.H., "A Phase-Interpolation and Quadrature-Generation Method Using Parametric Energy Transfer in CMOS," in IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I: Regular Papers, Vol. 62, No. 5, pp.1250-1259, May 2015

### 2014

N. Saiz, N. Dolatsha, A. Arbabian, "A 135GHz SiGe Transmitter and Dielectric Rod Antenna-in-Package for High EIRP/Channel Arrays," *Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC), 2014 IEEE Proceedings of the,* pp.1,4, 15-17 September 2014

Bhardwaj, K.; Lee, T.H., "A 0.96mW, 5.3–6.75GHz, phase-interpolation and quadrature-generation method using parametric energy transfer in 65nm CMOS," 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), pp.2145-2148.

### 2013

Kanupriya Bhardwaj, Siddharth Seth, Boris Murmann, and Thomas H. Lee, “A 0.11mm^{2}, 5.7-to-6.7GHz, Parametrically Pumped Quadrature LC-VCO with Digital Outputs,” Digest of Technical Papers, IEEE VLSI Circuits Symposium, June 2013.

Kanupriya Bhardwaj, Sriram Narayan, Sergey Shumarayev, and Thomas H. Lee, “A 3.1mW Phase-Tunable Quadrature Generation Method for CEI 28G Short Reach CDR in 28nm CMOS,” Digest of Technical Papers, IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, ISSCC, 2013, pp. 412-413.

### 2009

A. Kiaei, M. Bohsali, A. Bahai, and T. H. Lee, "A 10Gb/s NRZ Receiver with Feedforward Equalizer and Glitch-Free Phase-Frequency Detector," *European Solid-State Circuits Conference,* - Proceedings, September 2009. [Paper]

### 2008

J. S. Daniels, E. P. Anderson, T. H. Lee, N. Pourmand, "Simultaneous Measurement of Nonlinearity and Electrochemical Impedance for Protein Sensing Using Two-Tone Excitation," *Annual International Conference of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology* - Proceedings, 20-24 Aug. 2008. [Paper, Slides]

E. P. Anderson, J. S. Daniels, H. Yu, N. Pourmand, T. H. Lee, "A Label-free CMOS DNA Microarray based on Charge Sensing," *Proc. IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference* 12-15 May 2008. [Paper, Slides]

M. Jarrahi, R. F. W. Pease, D. A. B. Miller, T. H. Lee, "Spatial quantized analog-to-digital conversion based on optical beam-steering," In press, *IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology.*

M. Jarrahi, R. F. W. Pease, D. A. B. Miller, T. H. Lee, "Optical spatial quantization for higher performance analog-to-digital conversion," In press, *IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques*, 2008

M. Jarrahi, D. A. B. Miller, T. H. Lee, "Monolithic integration of GaAs/AlGaAs phase modulator and photodetector for RF photonics," *Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC)*, San Diego, California, Feb 24-28, 2008

M. Jarrahi, R. F. W. Pease, D. A. B. Miller, T. H. Lee, "High-speed optical beam-steering based on phased arrayed waveguides," *International Conference on Electron, Ion and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication*, Portland, Oregon, May 27-30, 2008

M. Jarrahi, T. H. Lee, and D. A. B. Miller, "Wideband, Low Driving Voltage Traveling-Wave Mach-Zehnder Modulator for RF Photonics", *IEEE Photonics Technology Letters*, Vol. 20, Issue 7, pp. 517-519, April 2008. [Paper]

M. Jarrahi, R. F. W. Pease, D. A. B. Miller, T. H. Lee, "Optical switching based on highspeed phased-array optical beam steering," *Applied Physics Letters *, 92, 2008 [Paper]

M. Jarrahi, J Danielson and T. H. Lee, "High-Power Tunable Terahertz Generation based on Photoconductive Antenna Arrays", *2008 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium*, Atlanta, GA, June 2008.

E. P. Anderson, J. S. Daniels, H. Yu, M. Karhanek, T. H. Lee, R. W. Davis, N. Pourmand. "A System for Multiplexed Direct Electrical Detection of DNA Synthesis," Sensors & Actuators: B 129, pp. 79-86, 2008 [Paper]

### 2007

T. H. Lee, "From Oxymoron to Mainstream: The Evolution and Future of RF CMOS", IEEE International Workshop, RFIT-Radio-Frequency Integration Technology, pp. 1-6, Singapore, December 2007.[Paper]

J. S. Daniels and N. Pourmand. "Label-Free Impedance Biosensors: Opportunities and Challenges," Electroanalysis 19, pp. 1239-1257 (2007) [Paper]

A. Kiaei, B. Matinpour, A. Bahai, T. H. Lee, "A 10Gb/s Equalizer with Decision Feedback for High Speed Serial Links," *IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference*, Sept. 16-19, 2007, pp. 285-288. [Paper]

B. Paul, S. Fujita, M. Okajima, T. H. Lee, H. S. P. Wong, and Y. Nishi, "Impact of a Process Variation on Nanowire and Nanotube Device Performance," *IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices*, Vol. 54, No. 9, pp. 2369-2376, September 2007. [Paper]

B. Paul, R. Tu, S. Fujita, M. Okajima, T. H. Lee, and Y. Nishi, "An Analytical Compact Circuit Model for Nanowire FET," *IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices*, Vol. 54, No. 7, pp. 1637-1644, July 2007. [Paper]

S. Fujita, K. Nomura, K. Abe, and T. H. Lee, "3D Nanoarchitectures with Carbon Nanotube Mechanical Switches for Future On-Chip Network Beyond CMOS Architecture," *IEEE TCAS-I Special Issue: Nanoarchitecture*, 2007.

M. D. Mulligan, B. Broach, and T. H. Lee, "A 3MHz Low-Voltage Buck Converter with Improved Light Load Efficiency," *ISSCC 2007*, pp. 528-529, San Francisco, CA, February 2007. [Paper]

W. Soldner, M. Kim, M. Streib, H. Gossner, T. H. Lee, and D. Schmitt-Landsiedel, "A 10GHz Broadband Amplifier with Bootstrapped 2kV ESD Protection," *ISSCC 2007*, pp. 550-551, San Francisco, CA, February 2007. [Paper]

M. Jarrahi, D. A. B. Miller, R. Fabian, W. Pease, and T. H. Lee, "Optical Spatially Quantized High Performance Analog-to-digital Conversion," CLEO-Conference on Lasers and Electron-Optics, pp. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, May 2007.

M. Jarrahi, R. Fabian, W. Pease, and T. H. Lee, "Traveling Wave Spatial Quantized Analog-to-digital Conversion," *IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium*, pp. 225-228, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 2007. [Paper]

### 2005

A. Hassibi, S. Zahedi, R. Navid, R. W. Dutton, and T. H. Lee, "Biological Shot-noise and Quantum-Limited SNR in Affinity-Based Biosensor," *Journal of Applied Physics*, 97-8, pp. 084701, April 2005. [Paper]

A. Hassibi and H. Vikalo, "A Probabilistic Model for Inherent Noise and Systematic Errors in Microarray Systems," *Proc. of Workshop on Genomics Signal Processing and Statistics*, (2005). [Paper]

H. Vikalo, A. Hassibi, and B. Hassibi, "Probabilistic Modeling and Estimation of Gene Expression Levels in Microarrays," *Proc. of Workshop on Genomics Signal Processing and Statistics*, (2005). [Paper]

A. Hassibi and T. H. Lee, "A Programmable Electrochemical Biosensor Array in 0.18um Standard CMOS," *Proc. IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference*, (2005). [Paper]

A. Hassibi, C. Contag, M. O. Vlade, M. Hafezi, T. H. Lee, R. W. Davis, and N. Pourmand , "Bioluminescence Regenerative Cycle (BRC) System: Theoretical Considerations for Nucleic Acid Quantification Assays," *Biophysical Chemistry *, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 175-185, August 2005. [Paper]

A. Agah, A. Hassibi, J. D. Plummer, and P. B. Griffin, "Design Requirements for Integrated Biosensor Arrays,"* Proc. of SPIE *, (2005). [Paper]

T. Al-Attar and T. H. Lee, "Monolithic Integrated Millimeter-Wave IMPATT Transmitter in Standard CMOS Technology," *IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, vol. 53, issue 11, pp. 3557-3561, November 2005. [Paper]

T. Al-Attar, A. Hassibi, and T. H. Lee, "A 77GHz Monolithic IMPATT Transmitter in Standard CMOS Technology," *IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium*, pp. 1571-1574, June 12-17, 2005. [Paper]

M. D. Mulligan, B. Broach, and T. H. Lee, "A Constant-Frequency Method for Improving Light-Load Efficiency in Synchronous Buck Converters," *IEEE Power Electronics Letters*, vol. 3, pp. 24-29, March 2005. [Paper]

S. Verma, J. Xu, M. Hamada, T. H. Lee, "A 17.1mW, 0.66mm2, Direct Conversion Receiver for 1Mb/s Cable Replacement," *IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference*, pp. 548-549, February 2005. [Paper]

### 2004

A. Hassibi, R. Navid, R. W. Dutton, and T. H. Lee, "Comprehensive Study of Noise Processes in Electrode Electrolyte Interfaces," *Journal of Applied Physics*, 96-2, 2004. [Paper]

S. Zahedi, R. Navid, and A. Hassibi, "Stochastical Modeling of Biochemical Detection Systems," *Proceedings of the 26th International Conference of IEEE Engineeing in Medicine and Biology*, 2004. [Paper]

A. Hassibi, T. H. Lee, R. Navid, R. W. Dutton, and S. Zahedi, "Effects of Scaling on the SNR and Speed of Biosensors," *Proceedings of the 26th International Conference of IEEE Engineeing in Medicine and Biology*, 2004. [Paper]

H. Kakavand, D. O'Brien, A. Hassibi, and T. H. Lee, "Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) Estimator for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Processes," *Proc. of 26th International Conference of IEEE Engineeing in Medicine and Biology*, 2004. [Paper]

K. Salama, H. Eltoukhy, A. Hassibi, and A. El Gamal, "Modeling and Simulation of Integrated Bioluminescence Detection Platforms," *Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Special Issue: Micro- and Nano-Bioengineering*, Volume 19-11, pp. 1377-1386, (2004). [Paper]

H. Vikalo, A. Hassibi, and B. Hassibi, "Nucleic Acid Detection Using Bioluminescence Regenerative Cycle and Statistical Signal Processing," *Proceedings of Workshop on Genomics Signal Processing and Statistics*, 2004. [Paper]

A. Hassibi, H. Kakavand, and T. H. Lee "A Stochastic Model and Simulation Algorithm for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Systems," *Proc. of Workshop on Genomics Signal Processing and Statistics*, (2004). [Paper]

S. Verma, J. Xu, T.H. Lee, "A Multiply-by-3 Coupled-Ring Oscillator for Low-power Frequency Synthesis," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp. 709-713, April 2004. [Paper]

S. Verma, "A Low Cost, Low Power Receiver," *Special University Oral Examination*, May 18, 2004. [Slides]

T. Al-Attar, M.D. Mulligan, and T.H. Lee, "Lateral IMPATT Diodes in Standard CMOS Technology," *IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting*, pp. 459-462, December 13-15, 2004. [Paper]

### 2003

Khaled Salama, Helmy Eltoukhy, Arjang Hassibi, and Abbas El Gamal, "Modeling and Simulation of Integrated Luminescence Detection Platforms," *Processings of the SPIE*, Volume 4966, pp. 106-116, 2003. [Paper]

Arjang Hassibi, Thomas H. Lee, Ronald W. Davis, and Nader Pourmand, "Bioluminescence Regenerative Cycle (BRC) System for Nucleic Acid Quantification Assays," * Proceedings of the SPIE*, Volume 4966, pp. 65-75, 2003. [Paper]

T.H. Lee and P.C. Davis, "50 Years of Communication Circuits at ISSCC," *IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference*, pp 25-26, 2003.

J.L. Dawson, and T.H. Lee, "Automatic Phase Alignment for a Fully Integrated CMOS Cartesian Feedback Power Amplifier System," *IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference*, pp. 262-492, 2003.

Shwetabh Verma, Hamid Rategh, and Thomas H. Lee, "A Unified Model for Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, Volume 38, Issue 6, June 2003, pp 1015-1027. [Paper]

S. Verma, Junfeng Xu, T.H. Lee, "A Multiply-by-3 Coupled-Ring Oscillator for Low-power Frequency Synthesis," *Symposium on VLSI Circuits*, June 12-14, 2003, pp 189-192.

D.M. Colleran, C. Portmann, A. Hassibi, C. Crusius, S.S. Mohan, S. Boyd, T.H. Lee, M. del Mar Hershenson, "Optimization of Phase-locked Loop Circuits via Geometric Programming," *IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference*, Sept. 21-24, 2003, pp. 377-380.

R. Navid, T.H. Lee, R.W. Dutton, "Lumped, Inductorless Oscillators: How Far Can They Go? [phase noise reduction limit]," *Custom Integrated Circuits Conference*, Sept. 21-24, 2003, pp 543-546.

M. Hamada, S. Verma, J. Xu, T.H. Lee, "Completely DC-free Direct Sequence Spectrum Spreading Scheme for Low Power, Low Cost, Direct Conversion Transceiver," *WNCG Wireless Networking Symposium*, October 2003.

O. Oralkan, A.S. Ergun, Ching-Hsiang Cheng, J.A. Johnson, M. Karaman, T.H. Lee, B.T. Khuri-Yakub, "Volumetric Ultrasound Imaging Using 2-D CMUT Arrays," *IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control*, Volume 50, Issue 11, Nov. 2003, pp 1581-1594.

Joel L. Dawson and Thomas H. Lee, "Automatic Phase Alignment for a Fully Integrated Cartesian Feedback Power Amplifier System," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, Volume 38, Issue 12, December 2003, pp. 2269-2279. [Paper]

### 2002

T.H. Lee, H. Samavati, H.R. Rategh, "5-GHz CMOS Wireless LANs," *IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, Volume 50, Issue 1, Jan. 2002, pp. 268-280.

Jung-Suk Goo, Hee-Tae Ahn, Donald J. Ladwig, Zhiping Yu, Thomas H. Lee, and Robert W. Dutton, "A Noise Optimization Technique for Integrated Low-Noise Amplifiers," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, August 2002, vol. 37, no.8 pp. 994-1002. [Paper]

O. Oralkan, A.S. Ergun, J.A. Johnson, M. Karaman, U. Demirci, K. Kaviani, T.H. Lee, B.T. Khuri-Yakub, "Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers: Next-generation Arrays for Acoustic Imaging?," *IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control*, Volume 49, Issue 11, Nov. 2002, pp. 1596-1610.

### 2001

Joel L. Dawson, Stephen P. Boyd, Maria del Mar Hershenson, Thomas H. Lee, "Optimal Allocation of Local Feedback in Multistage Amplifiers via Geometric Programming," *IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I*, January 2001, pp. 1-11. [Paper]

Joel L. Dawson, "Power Amplifier Linearization Techniques: An Overview," *Workshop on RF Circuits for 2.5G and 3G Wireless Systems, IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference*, February 4, 2001. [Slides]

Hirad Samavati, Hamid Rategh, Thomas H. Lee, "A Fully-Integrated 5GHz CMOS Wireless-LAN Receiver," *International Solid-State Circuits Conference*, February 4-8, 2001, pp. 208-209, 448.

Rafael J. Betancourt-Zamora, Shwetabh Verma, Thomas H. Lee, "1-GHz and 2.8-GHz CMOS Injection-locked Ring Oscillator Prescalers," *Symposium on VLSI Circuits*, June 14-16, 2001. [Paper, Slides]

### 2000

Maria del Mar Hershenson, Stephen P. Boyd, and Thomas H. Lee, "Optimal Design of a CMOS Op-amp via Geometric Programming," *Applied and Computational Control, Signals, and Circuits*, vol. 2, Birkhauser, 2000.

Arvin R. Shahani, Thomas H. Lee, Hirad Samavati, Derek K. Shaeffer, Steven Walther, "Method and apparatus for a lateral flux capacitor," U.S. Patent No. 6 028 990, issued Feb. 22, 2000.

Thomas H. Lee, and Ali Hajimiri, "Oscillator Phase Noise: A Tutorial," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 35, no. 3, March 2000, pp. 326-336. [Paper]

Sunderarajan S. Mohan, Maria del Mar Hershenson, Stephen P. Boyd and Thomas H. Lee, "Bandwidth Extension in CMOS with Optimized On-Chip Inductors," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 35, no. 3, March 2000, pp. 346-355. [Paper]

Hamid Rategh, "A CMOS Frequency Synthesizer with an Injection-Locked Frequency Divider for a 5 GHz Wireless LAN Receiver," *Special University Oral Examination*, May 2000.

R. Farjad-Rad, C. K. Yang, M. A. Horowitz, and T. H. Lee, "A 0.3-um CMOS 8-Gb/s 4-PAM Serial Link Transceiver," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, vol. 35, no. 5, May 2000, pp.757-764. [Paper]

Hirad Samavati, Hamid Rategh, and Thomas H. Lee, "A 5GHz CMOS Wireless-LAN Receiver Front-End," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, May 2000, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 765-772. [Paper]

Hamid Rategh, Hirad Samavati, and Thomas H. Lee, "A CMOS Frequency Synthesizer with an Injection-Locked Frequency Divider for a 5 GHz Wireless LAN Receiver," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, May 2000, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 780-787. [Paper]

M. Xu, D.K. Su, D.K. Shaeffer, T.H. Lee, B.A. Wooley, "Measuring and Modeling the Effects of Substrate Noise on the LNA for a CMOS GPS Receiver," *IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference*, May 21-24, 2000, pp. 353-356. [Paper]

Arvin R. Shahani, Thomas H. Lee, Hirad Samavati, Derek K. Shaeffer, Steven Walther, "Lateral flux capacitor having fractal-shaped perimeters," U.S. Patent No. 6 084 285, issued July 4, 2000.

Joel L. Dawson, Stephen P. Boyd, Maria del Mar Hershenson, and Thomas H. Lee, "Optimal Allocation of Local Feedback in Multistage Amplifiers via Geometric Programming," *43rd Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems*, August 8-11, 2000. [Paper]

Bendik Kleveland, T.J. Maloney, I. Morgan, I., L. Madden, T.H. Lee, S.S. Wong, "Distributed ESD Protection for High-speed Integrated Circuits," *IEEE Electron Device Letters*, vol. 21, no. 8 , August 2000, pp.390 -392. [Paper]

Joel L. Dawson and Thomas H. Lee, "Automatic Phase Alignment for High Bandwidth Cartesian Feedback Power Amplifiers," *IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference (RAWCON) 2000*, September 10-13, 2000, pp. 71-74. [Paper]

Hirad Samavati, "A Fully-Integrated 5GHz CMOS Wireless-LAN Receiver," *Special University Oral Examination*, Nov 22, 2000.

### 1999

Bendik Kleveland, C. Diaz, D. Vook, L. Madden, T. Lee, S. Wong, "Monolithic CMOS Distributed Amplifier and Oscillator," *IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference*, February 15-17, 1999. [Paper, Slides]

Ramin Farjad-rad, "A CMOS Multi-Gb/s 4-PAM Serial Link Transceiver," *Special University Oral Examination*, March 11, 1999.

Maria del Mar Hershenson, "CMOS Analog Circuit Design via Geometric Programming," *Special University Oral Examination*, March 15, 1999.

R. Farjad-Rad, C.K. Yang, M. A. Horowitz, and T. H. Lee, "A 0.4-um CMOS 10-Gb/s 4-PAM Pre-Emphasis Serial Link Transmitter," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, May 1999, pp.580-585. [Paper]

Ali Hajimiri and Thomas H. Lee, "Design issues in CMOS differential LC oscillators," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*,vol. 3, no. 5 , May 1999, pp. 717-724. [Paper]

Thomas H. Lee, "Oscillator Phase Noise: A Tutorial," *IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference*, May 16-19, 1999, pp. 373-380. [Paper]

Sunderarajan S. Mohan and Thomas H. Lee, "A 2.125 Gbaud 1.6kohm Transimpedance Preamplifier in 0.5-um CMOS," *IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference*, May 16-19, 1999. [Slides]

Hamid R. Rategh, Hirad Samavati, and Thomas H. Lee, "A 5GHz, 1mW CMOS Voltage-Controlled Differential Injection-Locked Frequency Divider," *IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference*, May 16-19, 1999. [Paper, Slides]

Ali Hajimiri, S. Limotyrakis, and Thomas H. Lee, "Jitter and Phase Noise in Ring Oscillators," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, June 1999, p. 790-804. [Paper]

Hamid R. Rategh and Thomas H. Lee, "Superharmonic Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, June 1999, pp. 813-821. [Paper]

Sunderarajan S. Mohan, "Modeling, Design and Optimization of On-Chip Inductors and Transformers," *Special University Oral Examination*, June 9, 1999.

Hamid R. Rategh, Hirad Samavati, and Thomas H. Lee, "A 5GHz, 32mW CMOS Frequency Synthesizer with an Injection Locked Frequency Divider," *Symposium on VLSI Circuits*, June 17-19, 1999. [Paper, Slides]

Hirad Samavati, Hamid R. Rategh, and Thomas H. Lee, "A 12.4mW CMOS Front-end for a 5GHz Wireless-LAN Receiver," *Symposium on VLSI Circuits*, June 17-19 1999. [Paper, Slides]

Jung-Suk Goo, Chang-Hoon Choi, Eiji Morifuji, Hisayo Sasaki Momose, Zhiping Yu, Hiroshi Iwai, Thomas H. Lee, and Robert W. Dutton, "RF Noise Simulation for Submicron MOSFET's Based on Hydrodynamic Model," *Symposium on VLSI Technology*, June 14-16, 1999. [Paper, Slides]

R. Farjad-Rad, C.K. Yang, M. A. Horowitz, and T. H. Lee, "A 0.3-um CMOS 8-Gb/s 4-PAM Serial Link Transceiver," *Symposium on VLSI Circuits*, June 17-19, 1999, pp. 41-44. [Paper]

Maria del Mar Hershenson, Sunderarajan S. Mohan, Stephen P. Boyd and Thomas H. Lee, "Optimization of Inductor Circuits via Geometric Programming," 36th Design Automation Conference, June 21, 1999, pp. 994-998. [Paper]

Jung-Suk Goo, Chang-Hoon Choi, Francois Danneville, Zhiping Yu, Thomas H. Lee, and Robert W. Dutton, "Issues in High Frequency Noise Simulation for Deep Submicron MOSFETs," *International Conference on Unsolved Problems of Noise and Fluctuations (UPoN)*, July 11-15, 1999. [Paper, Slides]

Sunderarajan S. Mohan, Maria del Mar Hershenson, Stephen P. Boyd and Thomas H. Lee, "Simple Accurate Expressions for Planar Spiral Inductances," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, Oct. 1999, pp. 1419-1424. [Paper]

Maria del Mar Hershenson, Sunderarajan S. Mohan, Stephen P. Boyd and Thomas H. Lee, "Design and optimization of LC oscillators," *IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer Aided Design*, November 7-11, 1999. [Paper]

### 1998

D. Shaeffer, A. Shahani, S. Mohan, H. Samavati, H. Rategh, M. del Mar Hershenson, M. Xu, C. Yue, D. Eddleman, T. Lee, "A 115 mW CMOS GPS Receiver," *International Solid-State Circuits Conference*, February 5-7, 1998. [Paper, Slides]

Hirad Samavati, Ali Hajimiri, Arvin R. Shahani, Gitty N. Nasserbakht, and Thomas H. Lee, "Fractal Capacitors," *International Solid-State Circuits Conference*, February 5-7, 1998. [Paper, Slides]

Ali Hajimiri, "Jitter and Phase Noise in Electrical Oscillators," *Special University Oral Examination*, April 8, 1998.

Thomas H. Lee, "The Design of Narrowband CMOS Low-Noise Amplifiers," *Advances in Analog Circuit Design*, April 28-30, 1998. [Paper, Slides]

C. Patrick Yue and S. Simon Wong, "On-chip Spiral Inductors with Patterned Ground Shields for Si-based RF IC's," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, May 1998, pp. 743-752. [Paper]

Ali Hajimiri, S. Limotyrakis, and Thomas H. Lee, "Phase Noise in Multi-Gigahertz CMOS Ring Oscillators," *IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference*, May 11-14, 1998. [Paper, Slides]

Ali Hajimiri and Thomas H. Lee, "A General Theory of Phase Noise in Electrical Oscillators," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, February 1998, pp. 179-194. [Paper, Slides]

Ali Hajimiri and Thomas H. Lee, Corrections to "A General Theory of Phase Noise in Electrical Oscillators," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, June 1998, p. 928. [Paper]

Derek K. Shaeffer, "A CMOS Global Positioning System Receiver," *Special University Oral Examination*, June 3, 1998.

Thomas H. Lee, "Recent Developments in CMOS RF Integrated Circuits," *IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium*, June 7-12, 1998. [Slides]

Bendik Kleveland, Thomas H. Lee, and S. Simon Wong, "50-GHz Interconnect Design in Standard Silicon Technology," *IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium*, June 7-12, 1998. [Paper, Slides]

Ali Hajimiri and Thomas H. Lee, "Phase Noise in CMOS Differential LC Oscillators," *Symposium on VLSI Circuits*, June 11-13, 1998. [Paper, Slides]

R. Farjad-Rad, C. K. Yang, M. A. Horowitz, and T. H. Lee, "A 0.4-um CMOS 10-Gb/s 4-PAM Pre-Emphasis Serial Link Transmitter," *Symposium on VLSI Circuits*, June 11-13, 1998. [Paper]

Hamid Rategh and Thomas H. Lee, "Superharmonic Injection Locked Oscillators as Low Power Frequency Dividers," *Symposium on VLSI Circuits*, June 11-13, 1998. [Paper, Slides]

Theerachet Soorapanth, C. Patrick Yue, Derek Shaeffer, Thomas H. Lee and S. Simon Wong, "Analysis and Optimization of Accumulation-Mode Varactor for RF ICs," *Symposium on VLSI Circuits*, June 11-13, 1998. [Paper, Slides]

Arvin R. Shahani, "Radio-Frequency Conversion and Synthesis (for a 115mW GPS Receiver)," *Special University Oral Examination*, June 24, 1998.

Rafael J. Betancourt-Zamora and Thomas H. Lee, "Low Phase Noise CMOS Ring Oscillator VCOs for Frequency Synthesis," *2nd International Workshop on Design of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuits*, July 27-29, 1998, pp. 37-40. [Paper, Slides]

Tamara I. Ahrens and Thomas H. Lee, "A 1.4GHz 3mW CMOS LC Low Phase Noise VCO using Tapped Bond Wire Inductance," *International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design*, August 10-12, 1998, pp. 16-19. [Paper<>, Slides]

Rafael J. Betancourt-Zamora and Thomas H. Lee, "CMOS VCOs for Frequency Synthesis in Wireless Biotelemetry," *International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design*, August 10-12, 1998, pp. 91-93. [Paper, Slides]

Maria del Mar Hershenson, Stephen P. Boyd, and Thomas H. Lee, "GPCAD: A Tool for CMOS Op-Amp Synthesis," *IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer Aided Design*, November 8-12, 1998.

Maria del Mar Hershenson, Stephen P. Boyd, and Thomas H. Lee, "Automated Design of Folded-Cascode Op-Amps with Sensitivity Analysis," *IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems*, September 7-10, 1998.

Derek K. Shaeffer, Arvin R. Shahani, S. S. Mohan, Hirad Samavati, Hamid R. Rategh, Maria del Mar Hershenson, Min Xu, C. Patrick Yue, Daniel J. Eddleman, and Thomas H. Lee, "A 115-mW, 0.5-um CMOS GPS Receiver with Wide Dynamic-Range Active Filters," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, Dec. 1998, pp. 2219-2232. [Paper]

Hirad Samavati, Ali Hajimiri, Arvin R. Shahani, Gitty N. Nasserbakht, and Thomas H. Lee, "Fractal Capacitors," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, Dec. 1998, pp. 2035-2041. [Paper]

Arvin R. Shahani, Derek K. Shaeffer, S. S. Mohan, Hirad Samavati, Hamid R. Rategh, Maria del Mar Hershenson, Min Xu, C. Patrick Yue, Daniel J. Eddleman, Mark A. Horowitz, and Thomas H. Lee, "Low-Power Dividerless Frequency Synthesis Using Aperture Phase Detection," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, Dec. 1998, pp. 2232-2239. [Paper]

Sunderarajan S. Mohan, C. Patrick Yue, Maria del Mar Hershenson, S. Simon Wong and Thomas H. Lee, "Modeling and Characterization of On-Chip Transformers," *IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM)*, December 6-9, 1998. [Paper, Slides]

### 1997

Arvin R. Shahani, Derek K. Shaeffer, and Thomas H. Lee, "A 12 mW Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Front-End for a Portable GPS Receiver," *IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference*, February 6-8, 1997, pp. 368-369, 487. [Paper, Slides]

Derek K. Shaeffer and Thomas H. Lee, "A 1.5V, 1.5 GHz CMOS Low Noise Amplifier," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, May 1997, pp. 745-759. [Paper]

Maria del Mar Hershenson, Stephen Boyd, and Thomas H. Lee, "CMOS Operational Amplifier Design and Optimization via Geometric Programming," *First International Workshop on Design of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuits and Applications*, July 28-30, 1997, pp. 15-18. [Paper, Slides]

Ramin Farjad-Rad, Kevin Yu, C.-K. Ken Yang, Bill Ellersick, Mark Horowitz and Thomas H. Lee, "An Equalization Scheme for 10 Gb/s 4-PAM Signaling over Long Cables," *First International Workshop on Design of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuits and Applications*, July 28-30, 1997, pp. 19-22. [Paper, Slides]

Gleb V. Klimovitch, Thomas H. Lee, and Yoshihisa Yamamoto, "Physical Modeling of Enhanced High-Frequency Drain and Gate Current Noise in Short-Channel MOSFETs," *First International Workshop on Design of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuits and Applications*, July 28-30, 1997, pp. 53-56. [Paper, Slides]

Theerachet Soorapanth and Thomas H. Lee, "RF Linearity of Short-Channel MOSFETs," *First International Workshop on Design of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuits and Applications*, July 28-30, 1997, pp. 81-84. [Paper, Slides]

Tamara I. Ahrens, Ali Hajimiri, and Thomas H. Lee, "A 1.6 GHz 0.5 mW CMOS LC Low Phase Noise VCO Using Bond Wire Inductance," *First International Workshop on Design of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuits and Applications*, July 28-30, 1997, pp. 69-71. [Paper, Slides]

Rafael J. Betancourt-Zamora, Ali Hajimiri, and Thomas H. Lee, "A 1.5 mW, 200 MHz CMOS VCO for WirelessBiotelemetry," *First International Workshop on Design of Mixed-Mode Integrated Circuits andApplications*, July 28-30, 1997, pp. 72-74. [Paper, Slides]

Thomas H. Lee, "CMOS RF: No Longer an Oxymoron," *IEEE Gallium Arsenide Integrated Circuit Symposium*, October 12-15, 1997, pp. 244-247. [Paper, Slides]

Rafael J. Betancourt-Zamora, "A Low Power Frequency Synthesizer for Wireless Biotelemetry," *33rd International Telemetering Conference*, October 27-30, 1997. [Slides]

Arvin R. Shahani, Derek K. Shaeffer, and Thomas H. Lee, "A 12-mW Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Front-End for a Portable GPS Receiver," *IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, December 1997, pp. 2061-2070. [Paper]

### 1996

Derek K. Shaeffer and Thomas H. Lee, "A 1.5V, 1.5GHz CMOS Low Noise Amplifier," *Symposium on VLSI Circuits*, June 13-15, 1996, pp. 32-33. [Paper]

C. Patrick Yue, C. Ryu, J. Lau, Thomas H. Lee, and S. Simon Wong,"A Physical Model for Planar Spiral Inductors on Silicon," *International Electron Devices Meeting*, December 1996, pp. 155-158. [Paper]

## Books

#### The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits

**2nd Edition**

Thomas H. Lee

From the Publisher:

This comprehensive book sets out in detail how to design gigahertz-speed radio-frequency integrated circuits in CMOS technology. Starting with a history of radio to establish a foundation and to differentiate the discrete era from the IC age, the book reviews passive RLC networks, the characteristics of IC components, and transistor models. The design of high-frequency tuned and broadband amplifiers follows, with an emphasis on approximate methods that provide important design insight as a complement to simulation results. Key RF building blocks, such as low-noise amplifiers (LNAs), mixers, power amplifiers, high spectral purity oscillators, and frequency synthesizers are studied in detail. The book closes with an examination of transceiver architectures. With over 350 circuit diagrams and illustrations, and many homework problems, this will be an ideal textbook for anyone taking graduate (or advanced undergraduate) courses in RF electronics, as well as a useful reference for practicing engineers.

#### Planar Microwave Engineering

Thomas H. Lee

From the Publisher:

Modern wireless communications hardware is underpinned by RF and microwave design techniques. This insightful book contains a wealth of circuit layouts, design tips, and practical measurement techniques for building and testing practical gigahertz systems. The book covers everything you need to know to design, build, and test a high-frequency circuit. Microstrip components are discussed, including tricks for extracting good performance from cheap materials. Connectors and cables are also described, as are discrete passive components, antennas, low-noise amplifiers, oscillators, and frequency synthesizers. Practical measurement techniques are presented in detail, including the use of network analyzers, sampling oscilloscopes, spectrum analyzers, and noise figure meters. Throughout the focus is practical, and many worked examples and design projects are included. There is also a CD-ROM that contains a variety of design and analysis programs. The book is packed with indispensable information for students taking courses on RF or microwave circuits and for practising engineers.

#### Feedback Linearization of RF Power Amplifiers

Joel L. Dawson and Thomas H. Lee

Improving the performance of the power amplifier is the most pressing problem facing designers of modern radio-frequency (RF) transceivers. Linearity and power efficiency of the transmit path are of utmost importance, and the power amplifier has proven to be the bottleneck for both. High linearity enables transmission at the highest data rates for a given channel bandwidth, and power efficiency prolongs battery lifetime in portable units and reduces heat dissipation in high-power transmitters. Cartesian feedback is a power amplifier linearization technique that acts to soften the tradeoff between power efficiency and linearity in power amplifiers. Despite its compelling, fundamental advantages, the technique has not enjoyed widespread acceptance because of certain implementation difficulties.

Feedback Linearization of RF Power Amplifiers introduces new techniques for overcoming the challenges faced by the designer of a Cartesian feedback system. The theory of the new techniques are described and analyzed in detail. The book culminates with the results of the first known fully integrated Cartesian feedback power amplifier system, whose design was enabled by the techniques described.

Feedback Linearization of RF Power Amplifiers is a valuable reference work for engineers in the telecommunications industry, industry researchers, academic researchers.

#### The Design of Low Noise Oscillators

Ali Hajimiri and Thomas H. Lee

The tremendous growth in wireless and mobile communications has placed stringent requirements on channel spacing and phase noise of oscillators. There is a need for a deep understanding of the fundamental mechanisms governing the process by which device, substrate, and supply noise turn into jitter and phase noise. Existing models offer only qualitative insights.

*The Design of Low Noise Oscillators* offers a new time-variant phase noise model. This model is capable of making quantitative predictions of the phase noise and jitter of different types of oscillators. The model also takes into account the effect of cyclostationary noise sources in a natural way. It details the precise mechanism by which low frequency noise, such as l/f noise, upconverts into close-in phase noise. It also suggests practical methods for suppressing this upconversion, so that oscillators can be built in technologies with poor l/f noise performance such as CMOS or GaAs. The Design of Low Noise Oscillators will be of interest to both analog and digital circuit as well as RF circuit designers.

#### The Design and Implementation of Low-Power CMOS Radio Receivers

Derek K. Schaeffer and Thomas H. Lee

The primary goal of this book is to explore techniques for implementing wireless receivers in an inexpensive CMOS technology. Although the techniques developed apply somewhat generally across many classes of receivers, the specific focus of this work is on the Global Positioning System (GPS). Because GPS provides a convenient vehicle for examining CMOS receivers, a brief overview of the GPS system and its implications for consumer electronics is presented.

Of particular interest in the context of this book are embedded GPS applications where a GPS receiver is just one component of a larger system. Widespread proliferation of embedded GPS capability will require receivers that are compact, cheap and low-power.

*The Design and Implementation of Low-Power CMOS Radio Receivers* will be of interest to professional radio engineers, circuit designers, professors and students engaged in integrated radio research and other researchers who work in the radio field.

#### Multi-GHz Frequency Synthesis and Division

Hamid R. Rategh and Thomas H. Lee

There has been an increasing demand for Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) systems in the past few years. New frequency bands are allocated and new standards are being developed to accommodate higher data rates. The fast trend of CMOS scaling has provided an opportunity for the development of low cost integrated WLAN systems.

Frequency synthesizers are one of the main building blocks of wireless transceivers. The high frequency digital frequency dividers in a phase-locked loop (PLL) based frequency synthesizer are among the most challenging blocks to design and usually account for a large percentage of the synthesizer total power dissipation. The successful design and integration of a high frequency PLL demands a comprehensive understanding of wireless systems, RF circuits, and loop stability issues.

This book starts with an overview of WLAN systems and reviews the WLAN market and standards. It then studies PLLs as an essential building block of WLAN receivers, and provides guidelines and engineering recipes for the design of loop filters in high frequency PLLs. Additionally, the book investigates different analog and digital frequency division techniques and introduces injection-locked frequency dividers (ILFDs) as an alternative for conventional frequency dividers. Finally, the book demonstrates a successful design of a fully integrated CMOS frequency synthesizer for a 5 GHz WLAN receiver. This book will be of interest to RF and high-speed analog circuit designers and students as well as wireless engineers.